Tyre eventually evolved to be a highly religious city centered around the Phoenician god Melqart, for whom temples were erected, and this eventually shifted the religious power from priests to kings. As a result, the city gained even more prosperity.
According to the Ancient History Encyclopedia, the religion caused a greater sense of unity among the Tyrians who believed they were special in the eyes of Melqart compared to other city-states.
Alexander the Great
Because of this strength of religion, Tyre eventually fell to Alexander the Great. According to the Ancient History Encyclopedia, when Alexander the Great arrived in Tyre, feelings were initially amicable.
Alexander himself offered to make a sacrifice to Melqart in honor of an alliance between Tyre and his empire.
However, the Tyrians refused because it was considered sacrilegious for a foreigner to offer a sacrifice to their god. As a result, a compromise was proposed by King Azemilk to have Alexander conduct the sacrifice in Old Tyre.
Messengers were sent to deliver the proposal, but Alexander the Great was insulted by the offer and had the messengers thrown off his wall (Ancient History Encyclopedia).
This sparked the great Siege of Tyre, which the Tyrians resisted fiercely, battling for a full seven months in 332 B.C., according to Britannica.
Alexander wanted the city in order to build a causeway to connect it to the island, which still remains to-date, making the once island a peninsula.
As for the Tyrians, 10,000 or so were executed, while around 30,000 were sold into slavery (Britannica).
After the death of Alexander the Great, Tyre eventually was taken over by the Romans around 64 B.C. after a brief rule under the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom.
The Romans rebuilt the city after it had been ruined by Alexander’s rival, Antigonus. They implemented new roads, built aqueducts, and erected monuments (Ancient History Encyclopedia).
Such monuments still stand today, like the Hippodrome, which is the largest Roman hippodrome to ever be discovered as per Britannica.
The city itself was prosperous under the Roman rule, until the collapse of the empire. It eventually served as a port city under the Byzantine empire until the 7th century A.D.
According to Lane-Pole in his book “Saladin and The Crusaders”, Tyre fell to Salah Eddine’s conquest by the end of the 12th century. It was hence taken into Muslim control after the era of the Crusaders (Ancient History Encyclopedia).
However, there are a significant amount of relics from the Arab, Byzantine, and Greco-Roman civilizations, such as the Roman Baths, the remains of a Venetian Cathedral, the Hippodrome, the Necropolis, and the Triumphant Arch, to name a few (UNESCO).